Legal Provisions for Anti Profiteering in CGST Act and Analysis thereof

Legal Provisions for Anti Profiteering in CGST Act andamp; Analysis thereof - We are going to witness biggest indirect tax reform in the history of independent India.


Legal Provisions for Anti Profiteering in CGST

Legal Provisions for Anti Profiteering in CGST Act and Analysis thereof -We are going to witness biggest indirect tax reform in the history of independent India. However, global trends suggest implementation of Goods and Service Tax or Comprehensive VAT on Goods and Services lead to inflationary conditions in short to medium term economy. Our county being highly price sensitive market, necessarily requires checking whether implementation of new…

Legal Provisions for Anti Profiteering in CGST Act

Sec. 171 of the CGST Act;

1. Any reduction in rate of tax on any supply of goods or services or the benefit of input tax credit shall be passed on to the recipient by way of commensurate reduction in prices.”

2. The Central Government may, on recommendations of the Council, by notification, constitute an Authority, or empower an existing Authority constituted under any law for the time being in force, to examine whether input tax credits availed by any registered person or the reduction in the tax rate have actually resulted in a commensurate reduction in the price of the goods or services or both supplied by him.

3. The Authority referred to in sub-section (2) shall exercise such powers and discharge such functions as may be prescribed


Content in this Article

The first part Sec. 171(1) casts responsibility to pass on benefit of GST to recipient for following two aspects:

a. For any rate reduction in new tax regime:

As regards passingof benefit due to rate reduction, in case of supplies exclusive of tax there should not be a big challenge, since reduction in tax rate will directly be evidenced by invoices and the recipient will get benefit of the rate reduction. However, in case where contract of supplies is inclusive of taxes, this provision will cast responsibility on the supplier to reduce the price due to reduction in rate of taxes. For example, FMCG items which are normally sold on MRPbasis or some other fixed prices by retailers, if there is any reduction in rate of tax it has to be passed on to the ultimate recipient. Accordingly, there shall be need to revise MRP or other prices fixed for such supplies.

b. For any benefit of Input tax Credit:

As regards passing of benefit due to better credit chain, it is going to affect almost all industries.In most places, be it service sector,manufacturing, trading or any specific industry, all are going to get advantage of better flow of Input Tax Credit. So the expectation of the provisions are commensurate reduction in prices of supplies. If we apply this principal in plain reading to the above illustration, we can reframe it as under:

Cost Sheet in GST Regime (If no one profiteer itself, on account of taxes):

DescriptionAmount (INR)
Purchase Price of Goods (A)1,00,000
GST 18,000
Total Purchase Price1,18,000
Operational Exp. (Business Consumables and Services) (B)1,000
Tax on Operational/ Indirect Exp.180
Total Cash Outflow1,19,180
Sales Price [Cost (A+B) + plus existing margin)] (C)1,12,350
GST 20,223
Total Cost to Consumer1,32,573
Profit of Dealer (C – A – B)11,350
Total tax which govt. has received (CG + SG)20,223

Comparison of three scenarios:

DescriptionExisting ProvisionsGST (Without adjusting prices)GST (Without Profiteering)
Cost to Consumer1,31,8751,47,5001,32,573
Profit of Dealer11,3502400011,350
Total Govt. Taxes19,52522,50020,223

After going through the comparison of three scenarios, it is evident that adequate reduction in prices is essential for success of biggest indirect tax reform of the country. Accordingly it is need of the hour that industry suo-moto reduces prices of goods and services. However, if it doesn’t do so, then legal provisions are there in place to take care of such situations. Introduction of this measure is required to curb the practice of pocketing the tax benefit, rather than passing it on to the ultimate consumer by way of real reduction in the price of supplies. That is why, despite lot of agitation from industry after release of revised model law in November 2016, the government maintained same provision in the CGST Bill too, which has already passed from both houses of the parliament, and has taken the shape of law of the land after signing from hon’ble President of India.

As of now Sec. 171 it is an enabling provision only in the enactment, which is to be followed by Rules made by central government. No draft rules have been put in public domain by the government to be discussed by the Industry for implementation and preparation on this provision

Applicability of Anti Profiteering provisions on Credit lying in Stock.

Sec. 140 of CGST Act allows taking credit of eligible duties in respect of inputs held in Stock and inputs contained in semi-finished or finished goods held in stock, for certain classes of registered personswhere such credit was not reflected in returns of respective law. By allowing carry forward of such credit to the registered person the government has ensured that such stock, when supplied in GST regime, will not suffer double burden of taxes and relevant benefit are passed to the registered person. Now question arises whether this benefit of credit has to be passed on to the consumer by way of reduction in price of supplies or not?

As discussed above, Sec. 171 is clearly applicable in two circumstances only. Firstly being reduction in rate of tax, which is not the case. Secondly being benefit of Input Tax Credit. The definition of ‘Input Tax Credit’ as provided in Sec. 2(63) read with Sec. 2(62) means CGST, SGST, UTGST and IGST charged on any supply of goods or services. The credit of eligible (old) taxes on stock carried forwarded in GST regime cannot be said to be input tax credit in the GST enactment.Therefore,it seems Sec. 171 will not cover such kind of credit and accordingly, benefit of such credit need not be passed on to the end customer.

It may be noted that in the Revised Model GST Law released in Nov 2016, there was a specific provision for passing on of such credit to the recipient, but the same is not there in CGST Act. It appears that government has withdrawn this condition in the final law, looking to the demand of industry and computational challenges, difficulties arising in verification that whether such credit has been passed on to the recipient or not.

However, if the credit of tax paid in stock is claimed under proviso to Sec. 140(3) read with Rule 1(3) of Draft Transitional Rules (i.e. where registered person doesn’t have the document evidencing payment of tax or duty), it is necessary to pass on benefit of such credit to recipient by way of reduction in prices.

Issues and Challenges

1. Computational Mechanism

a. Practically it is very difficult to establish one to one correlation between ITC on inward supplies and Tax payable on outward supplies. So ultimately it comes on margins or prices of supply. How the margins and prices are to be checked is a subjective matter. There may be various ways like:

  • Profit on product in absolute terms.
  • Profit percentage on Cost of product.
  • Profit percentage on Sale Price.

b. Further apart from benefits in terms of better credit chain, the business organisations are going to incur huge cost for implementation of GST on account of installation of new IT systems, restructuring of operations, redesigning of SOP’s, Compliances cost etc. Whether, the organisation can set off its gains in terms of better credit flow with its increased cost, before passing of the same to consumer. In other words, if rules prescribe for maintaining of margins,whether the same is to be maintained on Cost of Product level, Gross Margin level, Operational Profit Level or Net Profit Level.

Industry should represent before government with its rationale and demands. However, one thing which has to be ensured that rules should be detailed enough so that there will be no discretion available to any authority which leads to corrupt practices.

2. Determination of Price.

One fact needs to be noted that prices and margins are not solely dependent on taxes. Rather they are only a component of price like any other components. Price determination depends on many factors such as:

Internal factors:

  • Cost of raw material or other component
  • Predetermined objectives (Higher profit or higher revenue)
  • Image of the Seller (Goodwill)
  • Life cycle of the product (Initial level may be less priced or even free sample after that there may be increase in price)
  • Credit period offered.
  • Promotional activities (Heavy advertisement/ promotional exp.)

External factors:

  • Competition
  • Consumers (price sensitivity and purchasing power of buyer)
  • Government Control o Economic Condition (Recession)
  • Supply Chain (Longer the chain, higher would be the price)

Price determination of any product is most complex and continuous process, cycle of which depends on nature of product. If prices or margins are being freezed, on account of Anti Profiteering Measures, then it may lead to disastrous situation in many industries. Further, at times there may be strategic pricing for some products which the companies don’t want to share with anyone including tax authorities

3. Constitutional Challenges

a. Right to Free trade

Article 301 of our Constitution provides freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse throughout the territory of India. However, article 302 authorises parliament to Impose reasonable restrictions. Anti-Profiteeringprovisions or restriction on profits of trade of all goods or services may be treated as violation of fundamental right of freedom of Trade, hence may be subject to judicial review.

b. Implication on State Tax/ Assessees

It is pertinent to note that power to constitute authority u/s 171 is with central government only. Article 302 also authorises Parliament to impose such restrictions, whereas there are stringent conditions for state legislatures to impose such kind of restrictions under Article 304.

In such a scenario implementation of Anti Profiteering measures in respect of

  • State Tax (i.e. SGST) administered by any Govt. OR
  • Registered Persons, under State Jurisdiction for all taxes may be subjected to judicial review.


From consumers’ point of view Anti Profiteering Provision is necessarily required to be there so as to ensure deserving benefitis passed on to them. At the same time, looking at the issues and challenges before industry and the efforts involved in reworking of cost sheet and re-fixing of prices, it is advisable that

  • a) A reasonable bandwidth for margin variation should be prescribed, say for example variation upto 10% of existing margins. If variation remains within such bandwidth, no registered person should face any penal consequences u/s 171 of the CGST Act.
  • b) A threshold limit for turnover of taxable supplies may be prescribed, below which provision of sec. 171 shall not apply.
  • c) Further for above threshold limit, detailed rules, covering all aspects including computation mechanism, documents to be maintained etc, should be prescribed so that no discretionary power is left in hands of any authority which in turn can cause harassment of the tax payer.

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