Cash Flow Statement – Notes, Questions, Format with Examples

Cash Flow Statement : A statement of cash flows contains information about the flows of cash into and out of a company, and the uses to which the cash is put. The statement is comprised of three sections, in which are presented the cash flows that occurred during the reporting period relating to the following:

  1. Operations
  2. Investing activities
  3. Financing activities

Cash Flow Statement

The statement of cash flows is part of the financial statements, and as such is heavily reviewed by the users of the financial statements.

Cash flow statement is a statement which shows the sources of cash inflow and uses of cash out- flow of the business concern during a particular period of time. It is the statement, which involves only short-term financial position of the business concern. Cash flow statement provides a summary of operating, investment and financing cash flows and reconciles them with changes in its cash and cash equivalents such as marketable securities

  1. Cash flow statement is the report showing sources and uses of
  2. Cash flow statement explains the inflow and out flow of cash during the particular
  3. The main objective of the cash flow statement is to show the causes of changes in cash between two balance sheet
  4. Cash flow statement indicates the factors contributing to the reduction of cash balance in spite of increase in profit and vice-versa.
  5. In a cash flow statement only cash receipt and payments are
  6. Cash flow statement starts with opening cash balance and ends with closing cash

Purpose of a statement of cash flows:

  • To provide information about the cash inflows and outflows of an entity during a period. To summarize the operating, investing, and financing activities of the business.
  • The cash flow statement helps users to assess a company’s liquidity, financial flexibility, operating capabilities, and risk
  • The statement of cash flows is useful because it provides answers to the following important questions:

Where did cash come from? What was cash used for?

What was the change in the cash balance?

Specifically, the information in a statement of cash flows, if used with information in the other financial statements, helps external users to assess:

  1. A company’s ability to generate positive future net cash flows,
  2. A company’s ability to meet its obligations and pay dividends,
  3. A company’s need for external financing,
  4. The reasons for differences between a company’s net income and associated cash receipts and payments, and
  5. Both the cash and noncash aspects of a company’s financing and investing transactions.

Differences between a cash budget and a cash flow statement. 

  • A cash budget is a forecast where as a cash flow statement is an  historical document
  • A cash budget not require as a standard ; a cash flow require a standard
  • A cash budget is used for planning and control purposes(internal); a cash- flow statement is used to report to all stakeholders (external)
  • statement is prepared yearly (at end of accounting period)
  • A cash budget  may be customised according to needs of business ; Cash-flow statement is prepared only in accordance with standard format .

Explain why a cash flow statement is important to shareholders. 

Cash flow statements are important  to shareholders because  they show:

  • the ability of a business to generate cash internally
  • How much cash has been raised externally
  • the causes of change in liquidity or cash inflows cash outflows
  • Viability whether business can generate cash to service finance, pay tax and maintain its fixed assets going concern
  • stability of business reliance upon internal  sources external sources for financing
  • profitability and liquidity reconciled as shareholders Jan  confuse profitability with liquidity
  • indication of future cash flows ; capital investment (expansion of activities) and its effect on future cash

Explain how a company can make a loss but still have an increase in cash.

General discussion of the differences between cash and profit:

  • Timing   differences –  profits  are    recorded    in   the  profit  and     loss   account when the transaction is made but the cash may not be  received for some time.
  • Other  payments  –  payments  for  fixed  assets  result  in  cash leaving the    business but do not reduce profit.
  • Other  receipts  –  share  issues  or  loans  received  will  increase  cash  but are    not shown in the profit and loss account.
  • Non-cash items – provisions are made in the profit and loss account that do not involve the movement of cash e.g. depreciation

Explanation of how a company can make a loss and still increase cash balance: 

Non-cash items – provisions for depreciation  or  bad  debts  will reduce the profit figure but have no effect on cash for example.

Timing differences: the  company may  have  recorded  purchases  but  not  paid  for  them  yet for example. Other receipts: The company may have issued shares  or  taken  out  loans  during  the year and  these will  increase the cash balance but not affect  the profit figure for example.

Discuss the extent to which cash is more significant for business survival than profit. 

Cash is essential for short term survival. Without cash, a business may not be able to meet its liabilities  and  therefore  may  lose  profit  or even  be  forced  into  liquidation  by  its creditors. Also the business may not be able to pay dividends and hence lose the confidence of shareholders.

Profit is needed for long term survival to ensure that funds are generated to enable the business  to  invest  and  to  pay  dividends  to shareholders.

Explain to what extent a cash flow statement is essential in judging the financial performance of a company

Focus on cash – The cash flow statement  focuses  on  cash.  Cash  is  the  lifeblood  of  a business.  It is possible for a business to survive for a significant period of time whilst making losses: however, without  cash  a  business  can  fail quickly.

Profit can be distorted, but cash is more difficult to manipulate.

Cash is also seen as being a more certain figure and harder to manipulate, therefore it may be seen as a more accurate measurement of business success or failure. Profit can be distorted because decisions need to be made about: Examples such as recognition of sales distinguishing between capital and  revenue expenditure depreciation.

Profit is significant

Investors are interested in profit as this is the  source of dividends and significant for the long term survival of the business.

Judgment: The cash flow statement is important in judging the financial performance of the business – it shows:

  • liquidity
  • solvency
  • Financial adaptability.

However, the remaining statements also show significant information e.g. profits/losses and assets and liabilities.

about business performance.

Q.No 1 The statement of financial position of Zink Pink lee plc as at 31 December 2015 and 31 December 2016 abstract were as follows:

The following information is available.

31 December 2015 £31 December 2016 £
Current assets
Inventories1546616194
Trade and other receivables29412432
Cash and cash equivalents27652987
2117221613
Current liabilities
Trade and other payables35703594
Taxation due22781765
Proposed ordinary dividends30002000
88487359

Additional information:

  1. Net operating profit after interest was £
  2. Interest charges on the overdraft for the year were £
  3. a bank loan for £ 15000 at 12% interest, repayable in 3 years, was received on 1 May 2016.
  4. Depreciation is charged only on assets in the books at the year
  5. Machine bought on 1 January 2015 had a net book value of £ 60000at 31 December 2015. And was still in the books at 31 December 2016. Depreciation is charged at the rate of 25% per year, using the straight line
  6. Computers were bought for £ 3600 on 1 July 2015, with an expected life of 2 years. Depreciation is charged for the fraction of the year that the asset is
  7. on 1 October 2016, a motor van with a net book value of £ 12000 was sold for £
  8. on 2 December 2016, furniture with a net book value of £1800 was sold for £

Required:

The statement of cash flows for Zink Pink lee plc clearly show the net cash from operating activities section.

Cash Flow Statement

Q. N0 2 – The statement of financial position of Blue Square plc as at 31 March 2015 and 31 March 2016 were as follows:

Cash Flow Statement Q 2

Additional information:

  1.  On 1 April 2015, machinery which cost £ 30000, with a book value of £25000, was sold for £ 19000.
  2. a £90000 extension to the building was build and paid for during the
  3. Interest on the bank overdraft for the year was £
  4. profit after interest but before tax for the year ended 31 March 2016 was £56600 calculate the net cash flow from operating

Q.no 3. The statement of financial position moonlight plc as at 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2015 were as follows:

Cash Flow Statement Q 3

On 27 December 2015 furniture costing 40000 was purchased. No depreciation is to be provided on this new furniture for the year ended 31 December 2015.

Interest on the overdraft for the year was £1000. Net operating loss (178000)

Q. No 4. The statements of Financial position of Skyline ltd as at 31 December 2012 and 31 December 2013 were as follows:

Cash Flow Statement Q 4

Additional information:

  1. Machinery costing £ 129 000 was sold for £27 000 on 1 April 2013. The book value of the machinery was £20 500.
  2. Property was purchased for £227 500 on 1 May
  3. An issue of 100 000 £1 Ordinary shares at a premium of 50 pence per share was made on 31 March
  4. Ordinary shareholders received the following dividends in the year:
    • final dividend for 2012 of 4 pence per share on 22 January 2013
    • an interim dividend of 2 pence per share on 26 July 2013
  5. Preference shareholders received their dividends in full during the
  6. On 1 January 2013 the bank loan of £87 500 was paid
  7. On 1 May 2013 a £125 000 7% debenture was issued, with interest to be paid in two equal half-yearly
  8. Operating profit before tax for the year ended 31 December 2013 was £111

Required:

  • Evaluate the raising of capital for a plc by issuing a debenture instead of taking out a bank
  • Prepare a cash flow statement for the year ended 31 December 2013 for Skyline ltd in accordance with International Accounting Standard (IAS) 7 Cash Flow Statements (revised).

Q 5 . The Statements of Financial Position of Larnaca Distributors plc at 31 March 2012 and 31 March 2013 were as follows:

Cash Flow Statement Q 5

Additional information:

  • Motor vans bought for £ 210 000 were sold for £54 000 on 1 April 2012. The carry over (net book) value of these motor vans was £ 63
  • Computers were bought for £90 000 on 1 April 2012 and are expected to last for three years, with no residual
  • At 15 May 2012 a final dividend of 5 pence (£0.05) per share was paid to
  • An issue of 75 000 £1 Ordinary shares at par was made on 1 October 2012. All shares were purchased and have been fully
  • At 30 March 2013, an interim dividend of 4 pence (£0.04) per share was paid to all Ordinary
  • The £120 000 8% Debenture was repaid on 31 March
  • Operating profit before tax for the year ended 31 March 2013 was £12 000

Required:

  • Prepare the Statement of Cash Flows for the year ended 31 March 2013 for Larnaca Distributors plc in accordance with International Accounting Standard (IAS) 7 Statements of Cash
  • Evaluate the current liquidity position of Larnaca Distributors

Q 6. The Statements of Financial Position of Larnaca Distributors plc at 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2012 were as follows:

Cash Flow Statement Q 6

Additional information:

  1. Motor vans bought for £ 105 000 were sold for £27 000 on 1 April 2012. The provision for depreciation account balance show £73
  2. Computers were bought for £45 000 on 1 April 2012 and are expected to last for three years, with no residual
  3. At 15 May 2012 a final dividend of 5 pence (£0.05) per share was paid to
  4. An issue of 37 500 £1 Ordinary shares at par was made on 1 October 2012. All shares were purchased and have been fully
  5. At 30 March 2013, an interim dividend of 4 pence (£0.04) per share was paid to all Ordinary
  6. The £60 000 8% Debenture was repaid on 31 Dec
  7. Operating profit before tax for the year ended 31 Dec 2012 was £6 000

Required:

(a) Prepare the Statement of Cash Flows for the year ended 31 March 2013 for Larnaca Distributors plc in accordance with International Accounting Standard (IAS) 7 Statements of Cash Flows.

Author – Notes by KVLNSwamy M.B.A., B.Ed

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